Discovering Roma


Dear participant,

Autumn is a wonderful period to come to Rome and discover its “Great Beauty”. Thanks to the usually mild weather, it will be possible to walk across the city center, from the Ancient Roman Forum to Palatine Hill, through the fashionable streets, like Via Borgognona and Via Condotti, stroll around amazing squares and fountains, visit the ancient neighborhoods like Trastevere, walk through Via della Conciliazione and admire St. Peter’s Square, heart of Christianity.

Please contact the organizing secretariat (within October 31) which is at your disposal for any information. Tours will be confirmed only if the minimum number of registrations is reached and according to the access permits.

As follow some suggestions.



CHRISTIAN ROME

The Vatican City

As soon as you arrive in Piazza San Pietro, the visitor is first struck by the grandeur of the square spreading out before the Basilica of St. Peter, framed by the magnificent four column-deep colonnade designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

However it is only on entering the Basilica itself, after climbing the three tiered set of steps (once again designed by Bernini), is one truly over-awed by the vast size and sumptuousness of this symbol of Christianity. The largest church in the world’s surface covers around 22,00 square metres; its Michelangelo designed dome is 42 metres wide; the entire building rises to a height of 136 metres, while 330 steps take you to the top of the dome for an exquisite panorama of the square and Rome.

Countless masterpieces of major artists are be found inside: Bernini’s majestic 29 metre high bronze baldacchino; Michelangelo’s superb sculpture the Pietà; Canova’s tomb for Pope Clement XIII and Giotto’s restored mosaic The Navicella which is in a lunette over the central opening into the portico. Innumerable and timeless works, the majority of which are paintings, are also waiting to be admired in the Vatican Museums. Of inimitable beauty, here is also housed one of the cornerstones of Italian and indeed world art, Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel.


Castel Sant'Angelo

Walk down Via della Concilliazione. With its National Museum bearing its name, Castel Sant’Angelo, as well as boasting the marvellous stuccos, frescos and furnishing of its papal apartments, is also home to an important collection of ancient weapons.

Castel Sant’Angelo moreover gained automatic fame on the premiere of Giacomo Puccini’s Opera Tosca at the Teatro Costanzi in Rome on 14th January 1900. The opera in fact ends in tragedy with the main character, Tosca, hurling herself to her death over the castle’s ramparts.


Piazza Navona

Piazza Navona is reached by crossing the Tiber at Ponte Sant’Angelo and veering to the left. Viewed from above, the square’s outline is that of an arena. It was in fact built on top of Domitian’s Stadium, the remains of which are to be found in the piazza’s Seventeenth Century Baroque Church of Sant’Agnese in Agone, which was designed by that great architect Francesco Borromini.

Adorning the piazza are its three sumptuous fountains: the Fountain of the Moor, the Fountain of Neptune and the most important of all, Bernini’s Fountain of the Four Rivers (the Nile, Ganges, Danube and Rio de la Plata). During the festive season from early December to the Epiphany, the piazza is annually filled with Christmas stalls selling toys, sweets and crib figures. Over an amphitheatre dating from Emperor Nero’s rule, Domitian had a stadium built towards 86 A.D.

However over the course of the centuries, Piazza Navona was the favourite spot to hold games, tournaments and processions. Between the seventeenth and nineteen centuries, the piazza was often flooded for aquatic games and to stage naval battles, where boats of princes and prelates would be paraded with the letting off of fireworks.


Pantheon

The pantheon is nothing less than the finest example of the very best architectonic craft of ancient Rome. The simple harmonious structure results from its perfect cylindrical proportions, given that the diameter of the dome is equal to the height of the building. Its interior provides the last resting for a number of important personages.

Here lies the tomb of High Renaissance Painter and Architect Raphael, Baroque Painter Annibale Carracci and the Kings Vittorio Emanuele II and Umberto I. Dominating the square outside is G. Della Porta’s delightful Renaissance fountain surmounted by Rameses’ II’s obelisk.


Piazza di Spagna

Renowned world over for its spectacular steps, designed by Francesco De Sanctis between 1723 and ’26, as well as for Pietro Bernini and his son Gian Lorenzo’s 1629 half-sunk boat-shaped fountain called “La Barcaccia”, Piazza di Spagna is an important meeting point for both Romans and tourists.

Rising up on top of the Steps and overlooking the Piazza is the Church of Trinità dei Monti, which was built on the wishes of King Louis XII of France in 1502.

Shifting our gaze to the left, Villa Medici sul Pincio, today the seat of the French Academy, comes into sight. Fanning out from the piazza below are a myriad of streets where both the top fashion brands are to be found as well as sites of historical and cultural interest. Not to be missed is the Café Greco in Via dei Condotti.


ANCIENT ROME
Colosseum - Via dei Fori Imperiali - Roman Forum - Campidoglio (Capitol Hill) and the Capitoline Museums

Colosseum

Its name actually derived from a nearby over 35 metre high colossal bronze statute of the Emperor Nero. Symbol of Rome worldwide, the Colosseum was built by emperors of the Flavian dynasty between 72 and 80 A.D. on the site already occupied by an artificial lake which was part of the huge Domus Aurea (a compound of buildings and gardens built by Nero of which just the decorated ruins that inspired Renaissance artists remain). 100,000 square metres of travertine from the quarries in Tivoli were used for this amphitheatre, the largest every built in the Roman empire.

A capacity crowd of 75,000 was entertained to contests between gladiators, animal hunts, executions, etc. The arena was also flooded to become an artificial lake in order stage mock sea battles. The architect who designed the Colosseum “as a reward for his work” is said to have been thrown alive to the wild beasts, inaugurating in a way the long tradition that was to follow of cruelty and bloodshedding in the very building he had conceived.

In the Medieval era, it was turned into a fortress, then into a make-shift quarry to be stripped of material to build housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, hospitals. The pillaging was only put to an end when Pope Benedict XIV declared the Colosseum a sacred site.


The Forums

The Roman Forum is Rome’s most important archaeological site, stretching from Campidoglio to the Palatine. As early as in VII A.D. this area was already teeming with religious, business and political activity.

Added to Roman Forum were at later dates the Imperial Forums: the Forum of Julius Caesar, of Augustus, of Nerva, Vespasian, and the domineering Trajan Forum, whose Column and Markets are today still standing, unfailingly attracting the admiration of visitors worldwide.


Campidoglio (Capitol Hill)

Right from the early beginnings of Rome its famous hill was the site of the ruling authorities and theatre for official public celebrations. Michelangelo’s stunning piazza is flanked by three buildings: Palazzo Senatorio, which serves as the seat of the Mayor of Rome, stands in the centre; while on each side are the identical Palazzo dei Conservatori and Palazzo Nuovo, home to the Capitoline Museum. More than 200 paintings from the fourteenth to eighteenth centuries are on display in The “Musei Capitolini’s” Pinacoteca (Art Gallery), including those by such celebrated artists as Titian, Pietro da Cortona, Caravaggio, Guercino, Rubens, and many others.

Justifiably taking centre stage in the piazza itself is a replica of the bronze statue of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius, which escaped the usual fate of being melted down for reuse for coins or to make into another statue, because it was erroneously believed to depict the first Christian Emperor Constantine. While its pedestal was made by Michelangelo, the original statue is to be found in the nearby museum. A pathway, which has only recently been opened to the public, connects Piazza del Campidoglio to the terrace of the imposing Vittoriano Monument (Altar of the Fatherland) from where a simply breathtaking view of the whole city may be enjoyed. Admission is free to all of the Vittoriano, Monument to Italy’s first king, Vittorio Emanuele II, which also houses the Sacrario delle Bandiere (Museum of Flags) and Museum of the Risorgimento. The monument was opened in 1911 marking the 50th anniversary of the Unification of Italy and since 1921 holds the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.


Mitreo del Circo Massimo (Velabro)

Just a stonethrow away from the world famous “Mouth of Truth (“Bocca della verità”), in the undergrounds of an old building, one of the few - and one of the best preserved! -temples of Mithra still visible in town. Built in the III century A.D. inside a pre-existing structure related to the adjoining Circus Maximus, it consists of five rooms and contains an amazing marble bas-relief with Mithra killing the bull.



Sotterranei di S. Sabina (Aventino)

The magnificent Church of St. Sabina lies on top of the Aventine hill, overlooking the Tiber river and the Tiberine Island. The undergrounds host the remains of rich aristocratic houses and temples, as well as one of the first places where the early Christians gathered together, in the house of a roman matron: Sabina. We will also be able to see a portion of the ancient republican city walls.



Cave del Claudium (Celio)

A real medieval tuff quarry in the heart of Rome, a few meters from the Colosseum. Crossing a gate and proceeding inside a monastery closed to the public, we will have the chance to admire the massive structures of the Temple of Claudium. Passing under the temple arches and descending a metal staircase, we will enter another dimension, with water dripping from the vaults and galleries dug in the heart of the Caelian hill. The little crystal-clear ponds are the final bonus to this visit. N.B. For this visit, torch and helmet are required


Sotterranei di S. Crisogono (Trastevere)

Entering a church along the busy Viale Trastevere and opening a tiny door in the sacristy, we will have to descend along a winding staircase in order to reach the archaeological remains six meters below. Here the structures have been modified and reused for centuries. This is one of the first places where the early christians gathered, reusing for their rituals the spaces of two, maybe three, houses dating back to the II and III century A.D.


Insulae di S. Paolo alla Regola (Trastevere):

Inside a residential building in Trastevere we will have the opportunity of going eight meters underground, travelling back in time through four different levels, in a very complex stratification of buildings of different periods. Some of the rooms belong to a big warehouse built by Emperor Domitian (Horrea Vespasiani) to stock food to be distributed freely to the citizens of Rome. On a higher level, windows and a court yard belong to an insula that hosted poor people. Some clay pipe and the decorations induce to suppose the presence of an ancienty laundry (fullonica).


Case Romane del Celio

The Case Romane del Celio, located on the Clivo di Scauro between the Coliseum and the Circus Maximus, lies below the Basilica of Saints John and Paul on the slopes of the Caelian Hill. The houses were opened to the public in 2002. Together with the excavation of San Clemente they represent one of the most fascinating subterranean spaces in Rome due to their extremely well conserved frescoed rooms and because of the artistic and religious value of the site. The houses, known also as the home of the martyrs John and Paul, contain more than four centuries of history and attest to the coexistence and transition between paganism and Christianity. The frescoed rooms, originally shops and storerooms of a multi-storied working class building (insula), were in fact transformed during the 3rd century AD into an elegant upper class residence (domus). Within the rooms, you can admire some of the most beautiful frescoes of Late Antiquity.